Assessments of child welfare systems may be structured in many ways and investigate a variety of issues. Different from formal program evaluations, which are typically more structured and follow distinct protocols, assessments may be broader or narrower in scope, and an approach can be customized based on identified needs. Approach and scope of work are designed to help the agency understand concerns that led to an assessment, including underlying causes and results. By exploring carefully-crafted research questions, using various sources of information, a well-designed assessment can provide insight into and understanding of issues for agencies seeking to improve their programs. Recommendations focused on underlying contributors to concerns and crafted using problem-solving and implementation-science principles can provide guidance to agencies in making needed improvements and moving toward desired outcomes. Please click here for the full text.